Humboldt penguin Explaining the characteristics, ecology, and habitat .Is it an endangered species? Birds you can see at the zoo


We will explain the characteristics, ecology, and habitat of Humboldt penguins. Humboldt penguins are said to be the most suitable penguins for human environments, and some families keep them as pets. Humboldt penguins are penguins that can only be seen in South America, so we recommend seeing them on your trip.

Basic information about Humboldt penguins

Humboldt penguins are birds that belong to the Humboldt penguin genus (Cape penguin genus). The scientific name is Spheniscus humboldti. It is about 70 cm long and can be found near the coasts of Chile and Peru.

English(英名)Humboldt Penguin
scientific name(学名)Spheniscus humboldti
classification(分類)Sphenisciformes, Spheniscidae, Spheniscus

What will happen to the classification?

Both the Humboldt Penguin and the Humboldt Current are named after the scholar Alexander von Humboldt. There are four species of Humboldt penguins in the Humboldt penguin genus (Cape penguin genus).

ガラパゴスペンギン(Galapagos Penguin)  Spheniscus フンボルトペンギン属ガラパゴス諸島
galapagos islands
ケープペンギン(African Penguin)Spheniscus フンボルトペンギン属南アフリカ
South Africa
フンボルトペンギン(Humboldt Penguin)Spheniscus フンボルトペンギン属チリ
マゼランペンギン(Magellanic Penguin)Spheniscus フンボルトペンギン属南アメリカ太平洋岸
south america pacific coast 

About the Humboldt Penguin Habitat

Humboldt penguins live on the west coast of South America. Their main habitat is Chile and some parts of Peru, where there is the Humboldt Current, and because they live near this area, they are called Humboldt penguins. The Humboldt Current provides a continuous source of food and is home to a huge number of seabirds.

feature is? What kind of creature is it?

The Humboldt penguin’s head and upper surface are black. The thorax and abdomen are white with black spots. The iris is reddish-brown, and there is a single black stripe line on the thorax. Humboldt penguins form colonies. They are very cooperative and don’t cheat. They mainly molt in January in Peru and February in Chile. As a penguin, they can only dive to shallow depths, about 27 meters. Dive time is 1 to 2 minutes.

What will your personality look like?

Humboldt penguin species tend to have the same overall personality and are thoughtful. Humboldt penguins are relatively domesticated animals and have a high affinity for humans. As a hostile behavior, they may bend down, twist their neck, and look at the opponent with one eye.

What is the ecology of Humboldt penguins?

The Humboldt penguin’s diet consists of fish, squid, and crustaceans. The marriage style is monogamous, and the breeding season often takes place from April to May. They lay two eggs, the interval between eggs is 2-3 days, and the incubation period is about 40 days, and the chicks tend not to form a “crache”. The average lifespan is about 25 years.

What are the natural enemies of Humboldt penguins?

Natural enemies of the Humboldt penguin include the Setura fox, Peruvian gull, southern skua, and black vulture, and their eggs and chicks are particularly likely to be targeted. Nests in the wild are particularly disturbed.

Are Humboldt penguins an endangered species?

Humboldt penguins are an endangered species. The estimated number of individuals is about 30,000, and the number is decreasing year by year. This is due to the following reasons. Overfishing has become a problem, and groups are taking action. Conservation events are also now being held.

fishing competition

The human population is also increasing, which means they are taking more fish. As a result, Humboldt penguins have no fish to eat, making it difficult to find food nearby. Furthermore, due to climate change, it is becoming difficult to find food nearby. Sea surface temperatures are also rising due to the El Niño phenomenon, which is critical.

Marine pollution from petrochemicals

Habitat contamination by petrochemicals is a problem. Their numbers are decreasing throughout the Southern Hemisphere due to oil spills. The reality is that many penguins die every time there is a tragedy such as an oil spill.

Conservation efforts are also underway

Humboldt penguins are listed in Appendix I of CITES, and their trade is severely restricted. Humboldt penguins began to be legally protected in 1977 by the Peruvian government, which prohibits hunting, possessing, capturing, transporting, or exporting the birds for commercial purposes. Chile implemented a 30-year hunting ban in 1995, banning the hunting, transport, possession and commercialization of penguins.

Is it possible to keep Humboldt penguins?

Humboldt penguins are extremely difficult to obtain as their population is decreasing and they are listed as an endangered species. The only option is to have the aquarium or zoo give it to you. However, it is recommended because it is easy to adapt to the environment where humans live.


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